What is Doxing?
Doxing, is researching and broadcasting private or identifiable information about someone without consent. There are many reasons people would do this, but mostly it is with bad intent. This is illegal in most countries, but people still do it.
What can people do with your information?
Examples: If they know your IP, they can DDos you. DDos is simply put a way if denying you internet access. If they know your work address they can potentially get you fired. If they know where you live they can hurt you or your property. Also they can pas on the information to others, in hope that these things will happen to you.
Why do some people want to dox you?
Jealousy, they can see you as a threat, they may have political or ideological motivation and some people are just jackasses.
How can you avoid being doxed?
Being nice and humble, not attacking or arguing with people who are known assholes. If that is not your jam, anonymity is your go-to. You can use anonymous services or anonymous account when taking on subjects that are not mainstream.
How do you avoid being doxed?
If you have unpopular opinions and you are working for a company. Keeping your anonymity becomes more important. There are different means for different information.
Hiding your IP is important if you want to stay hidden and online. The IP address can reveal your approximate location and it is the necessary ingredient of a Denial of service attack(DDos). What most people forget is that your IP is stored in all the files you create on your computer or cellphone. And by sending these files to others or uploading the to your website and bad social media sites. They can get your IP from the file. Another common way to get people's IP, is trough bad peer-to-peer services or similar services. Example Skype, Messenger or team speak applications. You can either research services individually to make sure you are using safe ones or you can use VPN services to mask your IP.
If you want to stay hidden you need to avoid having references that can reveal your identification. Go trough all your links on your anonymous account and make sure there are no references to yourself. Friends or people you know can also be a reference. Avoid telling to many people about your secret identity.
You can hide your face using an avatar and you can mask your voice using software, depending on how much trouble you want to go trough. Avoid talking to people who you know online using your false identity. Small clues might give you of. Avoid talking about your personal life and personal details.
I wrote an entire section on not getting hacked.